The acute respiratory distress syndrome
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a prevalent cause of acute respiratory failure with high rates of mortality, as well as short- and long-term complications, such as physical and cognitive impairment. Therefore, early recognition of this syndrome and application of well-demonstrated therapeutic interventions are essential to change the natural course of this entity and bring about positive clinical outcomes. In this article, we review updated concepts in ARDS. Specifically, we discuss the current definition of ARDS, its risk factors, and the evidence supporting ventilation management, adjunctive therapies, and interventions required in refractory hypoxemia.
Dr. Christopher Wood is chief fellow in pulmonary and critical care medicine, Dr. Vivek Kataria is a board-certified critical care pharmacy specialist, and Dr. Ariel Modrykamien is chief of the medical intensive care unit at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas. The authors, reviewers, and editor have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
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All physicians and healthcare providers
After completing the article, the learner should be able to:
- Describe causes and risk factors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and conduct a differential diagnosis of ARDS in symptomatic patients.
- Describe the evidence-based treatments for ARDS and apply the mechanistic role of these treatment strategies in ARDS.
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